The {pnk}f(eli)x Blog

The informal ramblings of an ex-pat PL enthusiast

Detective Work on Rust Closures

I have recently been trying to keep myself abreast of a flurry of discussion about reforming the design of Rust closures. Niko has a series of blog posts (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8); the content of some of those posts were further discussed at Rust team meetings (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16), and there have been some more formalized proposals with their own set of discussions: (9, 10).

There are also associated github issues (17, 18, 19), though without sufficient context the discussion in the github issues may not always be intelligible.

Some of the links above are more about “Dynamically Sized Types” (DST), a related topic, as we shall see.

This post is my attempt to condense all of this information down into something where I can see all the pieces at once, and discard the red herrings along the way.

Background: Closures (recurring and otherwise)

In Rust circa version 0.6, closures have three categories according to the type system (&fn, @fn, and ~fn), but as Niko describes, they can be divided into two kinds: by-reference closures and copying closures. By-reference closures are also referred to as stack-allocated closures or sometimes “stack closure.” (There is also a orthogonal division of once closures, versus closures that can be invoked more than once; some of these things are, to my knowledge, only part of planned future implementation. Niko discusses them in the blog posts but I’m mostly sidestep them here.)

As Niko states in the first paragraph of 1, a stack closure is allocated on the stack, and can refer to and manipulate the local variables of the enclosing stack frame (by reference).

In Rust (as of version 0.6), one creates a stack-allocated closure by writing an expression |x ...| { ... } within an expression context dictating that it wants a closure of &fn type. Analogously, a closure allocated on the exchange-heap is expressed by putting the expression into a context of ~fn type, et cetera. Since a stack-allocated closure is currently expressed solely by use of &fn type, Niko often uses the term &fn closure synonymously with stack-allocated closure.

(However, Niko also points out (first section of “Procedures, Continued”) that one can borrow a @fn or ~fn to a &fn, so the type does not tell you whether you actually have a by-reference or a copying-closure.)

Here is the example of an unsound function that Niko described in his Case of the Recurring Closure post from 2013-04-30, making use of higher-order functions to express a fixed-point combinator:

struct R<'self> {
    // This struct is needed to create the
    // otherwise infinite type of a fn that
    // accepts itself as argument:
    c: &'self fn(&R)

fn innocent_looking_victim() {
    let mut vec = ~[1, 2, 3];
    conspirator(|f| {
        if vec.len() < 100 {
            for vec.each |i| {

fn conspirator(f: &fn(&R)) {
    let r = R {c: f};

As Niko explains, the vector vec is mutated while being traversed by an iterator; this is illegal. The closure |f| { ... } captures a reference to vec, and Rust’s borrow checker is not treating the argument f as a potential source of aliases to vec, even though it does alias vec because f ends up being bound to the closure |f| { ... }.

An important detail here is that the closure in question is a stack-allocated closure.

Niko has described his solution to this problem in 1; it would entail adding some new rules about how &fn closures are invoked and passed as parameters. One of the main changes imposed by his solution was that &fn closures would become non-aliasable; this would ensure that one could not express the Y-combinator. The restriction to ensure &fn closures are unaliasable interacts with other proposals, as we shall see. (Note that Rust does have a way of expressing a non-aliasable pointer to T for any T: &mut T.)

Background: DST

The heart of the Dynamically Sized Types proposal is the discrepancy described in Niko’s DST, Revisited post from 2013-04-30 (published contemporaneously with Case of the Recurring Closure). Niko has been wrestling with the idea for a while, as one can see on his posts from 2012-04-23 and 2012-04-27.

In Rust, vectors (and strings, which we will treat as a special case of vectors) come in the following forms:

  • dynamic-length: heap-allocated, carries its length N as part of its record structure. Consists of some amount of meta-data, including the length word, followed by the inline-allocated array of N elements. Expressed as ~[T] and @[T] in Rust.
  • slice: represents a substring of a vector; consists of two words: a pointer to the payload, and a length bound. Expressed as &[T] in Rust.
  • fixed-length: represents exactly N elements, where N is statically tracked at compile-time. Consists of just the array of elements, T[N], and nothing more. Expressed as [T, ..N] in Rust.

Niko points out that a slice’s two-word representation is quite different from the representations of the other variants. His proposal is to unify the first two representations, by laying out ~[T] and @[T] as pairs of words (a pointer to the boxed elements array, and a length). (Niko claimed that this makes a ~[T] and @[T] valid slices, “apart from the box header”; it seems to me like the box header is quite relevant here, unless the idea is that when you coerce a @[T] to a slice, you increment the pointer value accordingly…)

Then, Niko classifies the types of Rust into two categories: Sized and Unsized; i.e., size is statically known, versus size is tracked at runtime (maybe the letters S and R would have been more appropriate than S and U…). The “unsized types” cannot themselves be assigned as types of local variables, and you cannot have vectors of elements of unsized type; this all stems from the fact that “unsized types” do not have a static size. (The “unsized types” are arguably not actually types; we might be well-served by referring to them as “pretypes” or something). But pointers to unsized types are valid types. Such pointers are the pairs of words discussed above, aka “fat pointers”: (payload, meta), where payload is the pointer to the data, and meta is the descriptor that includes some way to determine the size of the payload (to support runtime bounds checks).

The fact that “unsized types” need to be treated specially leads to a complication, discussed further in the post; how to differentiate between type-parameterized code that works on both kinds of types, versus typed-parameterized code that solely operates on sized types. The method proposed in the post is to express the distinction via a trait bound: the Sized bound would restrict the type parameter to one of statically-known size; you would not be able to express types like [X, ..3] (a fixed-length vector of 3 X'es), unless you include the bound X:Sized. (There is more on this restriction and ways to ease it further down.)

One of the benefits of DST that Niko proposes early on is that Traits and closures are other instances of unsized types, so that Rust’s type hierarchy could be presented uniformly like so:

T = S            // sized types
  | U            // unsized types
S = &'r T        // region ptr
  | @T           // managed ptr
  | ~T           // unique ptr
  | [S, ..N]     // fixed-length array
  | uint         // scalars
  | ...
U = [S]          // vectors
  | str          // string
  | Trait        // existential ("exists S:Trait.S")
  | fn(S*) -> S

(Note that the actual types assigned to expressions would be instances of S according to this grammar.)

The Problem: DST and Closures

So, from the “Case of the Recurring Closure”, we saw that &fn closures were to become non-copyable. But under the DST proposal, generic code should be able to treat &T the same for all T, including when T is some fn(S*) -> S. These two criteria are not compatible; Niko has lots more explanation in his corresponding post: “Recurring Closures and Dynamically Sized Types”, from 2013-05-13.

Niko’s immediate proposals to resolve this were either:

  • we write &mut fn instead of &fn. &mut T for all T (including fn (S ...) -> S) is forced to be unaliasable by the borrow-checker, and so the hole goes away, or,
  • we change notation, and move the sigils for closures after the fn, side-stepping the special treatment of &fn versus &T by getting rid of &fn and replacing it with fn&.

Is fn~ too ugly?

Niko at first favored the latter, then he wrote a second post, “Mutable Fn Alternatives” on 2013-05-13, which reconsidered whether fn~ is too ugly, and included new survey of the options:

  • Maybe &mut fn is not that bad, or
  • Maybe make all closures borrowed (i.e. stack-allocated), removing the need for any sigil, or
  • Make fn denote stack-allocated closures, and replace fn~ with a new keyword, like proc. (This is a variation on the previous bullet.)

For the second and third bullets, the main point is: If you need to capture state in a manner that cannot be expressed via the available options (stack-allocated closure, or a proc, if present), then you have to use an trait instead (i.e. an object or a record). (I personally am not thrilled about losing the option of using closures to express combinator libraries, a use case for fn@.)

Leveraging a proc keyword/expression

Then a third post, “Procedures, Continued” from 2013-05-15, refined the proc proposal a bit further. As stated in the background on closures, Rust has by-reference closures and copying closures; the choice of which variant to construct is based on the type expected by the context of the |x ...| { ... } expression. In this post, Niko proposed that the distinction here deserves a starker line between the two forms. (In that post, he proposed both a revision to English jargon and also to the Rust syntax; I’m going to focus solely on the Rust syntax changes, and let those guide the changes to my own jargon here.)

So Niko proposes distinguishing a by-reference closure from a copying closure via keywords. A stack-allocated closure would be constructed solely via fn, and a copying closure would be constructed solely via proc. While discussing this proposal henceforth, I will refer to a by-reference closure as an fn-closure and a copying closure as a proc-closure.

The type hierarchy that Niko then provides for this is:

T = S               // sized types
  | U               // unsized types
S = fn(S*) -> S     // closures (*)
  | &'r T           // region ptr
  | @T              // managed ptr
  | ~T              // unique ptr
  | [S, ..N]        // fixed-length array
  | uint            // scalars
  | ...
U = [S]             // vectors
  | str             // string
  | Trait           // existential ("exists S:Trait.S")
  | proc(S*) -> S   // procedures (*)

Now, fn-closures are considered sized types, because they are always represented by two words: a (borrowed) environment pointer (to the stack in Niko’s proposal, though perhaps it could be generalized to point elsewhere) and a function pointer. proc-closures are unsized types, because their copied lexical environment is of some dynamically-determined size that they must carry in their record structure.

In this version of the proposal, proc can now be allocated to either the exchange heap (~proc) or the task heap (@proc). So this brings back the ability to express combinator libraries.

Niko’s post provides further detail, such as dissection of the fn and proc closure types (which include important details like the lifetime and trait bounds for the closed-over variables; this is important since with a separate keyword, it is now reasonable for different defaults to be chosen for two cases; useful for making the common case succinct). He also describes a couple variations on the theme, including modeling proc closures via traits (i.e. boxed traits are objects carrying virtual method dispatch tables), and then expressing them via a proc! macro (which means they could be left out of the core language).

Other ways to express proc

In his next post, “Removing Procs”, Niko elaborates further on the idea that proc need not be supported in the language at all. Stack-allocated fn-closures would remain, expressed via fn(S ...) -> T, and the language already supports raw (environment-less) function pointers via extern "ABI" fn(S ...) -> T. Niko points out two ways to re-express copying closures:

  1. One could pass around function pointers along with records that carry the captured environment; this is basically lambda-lifting (the variant that turns the free variables into fields of a single environment structure, rather than passing each variable as a separate parameter), or
  2. As stated earlier, (boxed) traits can used to express copying closures.

Niko surveyed how these patterns would look in his post, by considered existing use cases of @fn and ~fn in the standard libraries, namely task spawning and futures. Without more language support, the lambda-lifting transformation requires that one list the captures variables (at least once, though further repetitions can be avoided via appropriate macro definitions). I am personally hesistant to approve of removing non stack-allocated closures wholesale, though if it turns out that capture clauses are essentially unavoidable (or if understanding behavior without them is unworkable), then my main problem with the proc! macros (the explicit list of free variables) would go away.

Alternatively, if the macro system were somehow extended to allow a macro to query an expression for its free variables, then that might help.

A Personal Digression on Macros

Actually, this latter idea brings up a problem with the explicit list of captured variables that I had not thought of before: some macros may intentionally inject references to free variables, where the injected free variables are not meant to be part of the public interface of the macro (i.e., the macro is enforcing some protocol of usage, and the variable is meant to be otherwise private to the module where the macro is defined). I know we do not currently have macros exported from modules, but I thought it was supposed to be part of the long term plans for Rust.

  • Do we intend to disallow the use of such macros within copying closures?

  • Will we require the modules to expose those variable names, solely so that they can be included on the lists of free variables?

  • Or, if a macro could query an expression for its free variables (where even module-private identifiers might be included on such a list), that might help impose a usage discipline that would support a proc! macro,

  • Or, this whole example might serve as an argument for keeping copying closures as a primitive linguistic construct.

Okay, end of digression.

More followups on procs and fns

A few days passed, then Niko had a fourth post, “More on Fns”, from 2013-06-03. This proposal renamed of a proposed Task trait to Thunk, since Niko felt that the concept at hand (an encapsulated function and the parameters it needs) is better reflected by that name.

More importantly, given the immediately preceding digression, the form thunk { ... } would automatically determine the captured variables instead of requiring an explicit list; this sidesteps the whole question of how to handle macros that inject new free variable references.

There is then much discussion of whether or not to support once fns, which I won’t summarize here. The important detail of the post is that we do not necessarily have to list the captured variables explicitly.

After a few more days, Niko had a followup on the related topic of dynamically sized types (DST), “Reducing DST Annotation”, from 2013-06-06. It took into account an investigation by Ben Blum on the implications of a Sized trait bound. This led to Niko exploring some alternatives to adopting DST with a Sized bound:

  • Abandon DST altogether: Niko summarizes what DST still buys us, but also points out where it does not live up to its original promises.
  • Make type parameters default to Sized, and adopt a different syntactic mechanism to distinguish Sized from Unsized (such as a keyword).
  • Use some sort of inference: the type-checker can use properties of a function’s parameter list to provide feedback on whether the type parameter has an implicit Sized bound. (Niko wonders if this approach is too clever; I am inclined to affirm that it is.)

So where are we?

The above summarizes the series of blog posts from Niko. I had hoped to get through the actual proposals (and maybe also the team meeting notes), but at this point, it is late enough in the day and this post is long enough that I think I will stop here.

The language is young, and I am a Rust novice. So, grains of salt for everyone:

  • My intuition is that we should leave in copying closures in some form.
  • The thunk { ... } expression might suffice, but … I am not yet convinced that I would be satisfied using boxed traits to express the cases that need input arguments (like combinator libraries).
  • I am not thrilled by the idea of writing out lists of free variables. Of course, this is a systems programming language, and such a list may simply be the simplest way to accomplish certain goals (e.g. to indicate whether a referenced value is moved or copied).
  • If we do require a list of free variables in our copying proc/thunk/etc, please ensure that the question of free variables injected by macro invocations is addressed.